Humanities › History & Culture Octavian Augustus Glossary Entry Share Flipboard Email Print Heritage Images / Getty Images History & Culture Ancient History and Culture Figures & Events Ancient Languages Greece Egypt Asia Rome Mythology & Religion American History African American History African History Asian History European History Genealogy Inventions Latin American History Medieval & Renaissance History Military History The 20th Century Women's History View More By N.S. Gill Ancient History and Latin Expert M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota B.A., Latin, University of Minnesota our editorial process N.S. Gill Updated January 13, 2020 Octavian, known to posterity as the Emperor Augustus Caesar, was the first emperor of Rome, the first of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, the adopted son of his great-uncle Julius Caesar, and possibly the most important man in Roman history. Octavian or Augustus lived from 63 B.C.-A.D. 14. Timeline of Octavian Augustus The date at which he began his rule could be either 31 B.C. when the forces of Augustus under Agrippa defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium, or in 27 B.C. when Octavian became Augustus, a term of honor awarded him by the Senate. Octavian Augustus' Achievements Octavian Augustus reformed the Praetorian Guard and laws on marriage and adultery, he had the power of a tribune and was Pontifex Maximus (head priest). He extended the boundaries of the Roman Empire, caused the Pax Romana, and built up the city of Rome. Misfortunes of Augustus' Reign Through the long years of his reign, Octavian Augustus put an end to the already seriously decaying republican system of government. It was under his rule that Varus suffered a disastrous defeat in Teutoberg Wald, putting a temporary end to territorial ambition beyond the Rhine. His own daughter and grand-daughter defied Octavian's lofty moral stance. Although both partners were demonstrably capable of producing children, Augustus failed to produce an heir with Livia, his wife during his long term as emperor. Ultimately, Octavian Augustus had little choice but to make his begrudging son-in-law, Livia's son Tiberius, his successor—even though Tiberius wasn't much to his liking.