Who's Who in the Royal Family

The House of Windsor has ruled the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth realms since 1917. Learn about the members of the royal family here.

Queen Elizabeth II

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Born on April 21, 1926, Elizabeth Alexandra Mary became queen of England on Feb. 6, 1952, upon the death of her father, George VI. She is the third-longest-reigning monarch in the history of Britain. She endeared herself to the British public as princess during World War II, when she rolled up her sleeves and joined the war effort in the Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service. As soon as her father's health declined in 1951, Elizabeth began picking up many of his duties as the heiress apparent. Her reign was marked by milestones—like being the first British monarch to address a joint session of the U.S. Congress—and public turmoil, such as the divorce of her son Charles from Princess Diana. Upon her death on September 8, 2022, she was the longest-reigning monarch in British history, the longest-reigning female monarch in history, and the second-longest-reigning monarch in world history.

Prince Philip

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The Duke of Edinburgh and consort of Queen Elizabeth II, born June 10, 1921, was originally a prince of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, whose members include the royal houses of Denmark and Norway, the deposed royal house of Greece. His father was Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, whose ancestry was Greek and Russian. Philip served in the Royal Navy during World War II. He received the title of His Royal Highness from George VI the day before he married Elizabeth on Nov. 20, 1947. Because of Philip's surname, the male children of the couple use the surname Mountbatten-Windsor. Philip died on April 9, 2021, just months shy of his 100th birthday.

Princess Margaret

Princess Margaret, born Aug. 21, 1930, was the second child of George VI and Elizabeth's younger sister. She was the Countess of Snowdon. After World War II, she wanted to marry Peter Townsend, an older divorced man, but the match was strongly discouraged and she inevitably ended the romance. Margaret would marry Antony Armstrong-Jones, a photographer who would be granted the title Earl of Snowdon, on May 6, 1960. However, the two divorced in 1978. Margaret was a heavy smoker like her father, developed lung ailments and died in London on Feb. 9, 2002, at age 71.

King Charles III

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King Charles III (previously the Prince of Wales) is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip. He was born on Nov. 14, 1948, and was just four years old when his mother assumed the throne. He founded The Prince's Trust, a charity to aid children, in 1976. He married Lady Diana Frances Spencer in a 1981 wedding viewed by some 750 million worldwide. Yet even though the marriage yielded two princes—William and Harry—the union became the stuff of tabloid fodder and the pair divorced in 1996. Charles would later admit that he had engaged in adultery with Camilla Parker Bowles, who he had known since 1970. Charles and Camilla married in 2005; she became Duchess of Cornwall. Charles ascended the throne following his mother's death in 2022 and chose to keep his own name as his regnal name, becoming King Charles III; Camilla became the Queen Consort.

Princess Anne

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Anne, Princess Royal, born Aug. 15, 1950, is the second child and only daughter of Elizabeth and Philip. On Nov. 14, 1973, Princess Anne married Mark Phillips, then a lieutenant in the 1st Queen's Dragoon Guards, in her own widely televised wedding. They had two children, Peter and Zara, yet divorced in 1992. The children have no title because the couple had turned down an earldom for Phillips. Months after her divorce, Anne married Timothy Laurence, then a commander in the Royal Navy. As with her first husband, Laurence received no title. She is an accomplished equestrian and devotes much of her time to charity work.

Prince Andrew

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Andrew, Duke of York, is the third child of Elizabeth and Philip. He was born on Feb. 19, 1960. He had a career in the Royal Navy and participated in the Falklands War. Andrew married childhood acquaintance Sarah Ferguson, a descendant of the Stuart and Tudor houses, on July 23, 1986. They have two daughters, Princess Beatrice and Princess Eugenie, and amicably divorced in 1996. Following ongoing allegations of impropriety and assault, Andrew resigned from public roles in 2020. His honorary military affiliations and royal patronages were removed by the Queen, and he ceased to use his "Royal Highness" style.

Prince Edward

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Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, is the youngest child of Elizabeth and Philip, born March 10, 1964. Edward was in the Royal Marines, but his interests turned more toward theater and, later, television production. He married businesswoman Sophie Rhys-Jones on June 19, 1999, in a televised wedding that was more casual than those of his siblings. They have two children, Lady Louise Windsor and James, Viscount Severn.

William, Prince of Wales

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William, Princes of Wales is the older child of Charles III and Diana, Princess of Wales, born June 21, 1982. Upon his father's accession, he became first in line to the throne. He served in the Royal Air Force, in addition to having picked up much of the charity work championed by his late mother.

Prince William is married to Kate Middleton (officially known as Catherine, Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales) and they have three children, Prince George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis. 

After Charles became king, William also became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, along with his Duke of Cambridge title bestowed upon his 2011 wedding.

Prince Harry

(Photo by Lefteris Pitarakis - WPA Pool/Getty Images)

Prince Henry, Duke of Sussex, known as Prince Harry, is the younger child of Charles III and Diana, Princess of Wales. He was born Sept. 15, 1984. Harry was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the Blues and Royals of the Household Cavalry Regiment and served on the ground in Afghanistan before being pulled out over fears for his safety. As a young man, Harry was a favorite of the tabloids, with exploits ranging from smoking marijuana and drinking to showing up dressed in a German Afrika Korps uniform at a costume party. He married Meghan Markle, a biracial American actress, in 2018, and the couple have two children, Archie and Lilibet. Harry and Meghan stepped down from senior royal duties in 2020

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Johnson, Bridget. "Who's Who in the Royal Family." ThoughtCo, Oct. 24, 2022, thoughtco.com/whos-who-in-the-royal-family-3555568. Johnson, Bridget. (2022, October 24). Who's Who in the Royal Family. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/whos-who-in-the-royal-family-3555568 Johnson, Bridget. "Who's Who in the Royal Family." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/whos-who-in-the-royal-family-3555568 (accessed March 29, 2023).